U.S. Leads Push To Keep Outer Space Free Of 'Junk'

By: CNN Posted By: Stephanie Schultz
By: CNN Posted By: Stephanie Schultz
 Imagine waking up to a world where your cell phone doesn

Obama's budget would cancel NASA's Constellation Program, which had sought to send astronauts back to the moon by 2020. NASA released its 2011 budget on Monday, February 1, 2010, saying the International Space Station will be extended likely to 2020 or beyond enabling this vital orbiting laboratory to reach its full potential.

WASHINGTON (CNN) -- Imagine waking up to a world where your cell phone doesn't work, you can't fill your car's tank using a credit card, and you cannot monitor the day's news or watch your favorite program on television. Sound farfetched? Perhaps -- but the U.S. government is leading the charge with other nations to keep one possible catalyst for that scenario from unfolding.

Earlier this year, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced the United States would join the European Union and other nations to develop the "International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities" that would establish an international framework for the responsible use of space. In a statement announcing the initiative, Clinton said the United States was committed to "reversing the troubling trends that are damaging our space environment."

Eleven countries have space-launch capacity, and over 60 own and operate more than 1,100 satellites that play an unseen role in our daily lives, or serve military or intelligence-gathering dimensions for the governments who oversee their use.

The problem of space debris, or "space junk" as it is known, has become an increasing impediment to the effective management of outer space, with several near misses in recent years of both commercial and official assets for many space-faring nations.

"Unless we take action soon, if there are a number of other collisions, we could be in a situation 10 or 15 years from now where low Earth orbit is just too difficult to maneuver, which would have a dramatic impact on people's daily lives," Frank Rose, deputy assistant secretary of state for space and defense policy, told CNN's Security Clearance.

"Every aspect of our lives is dependent on space, and how if we were denied that access and those capabilities it would dramatically affect our lives."

For Rose, the amount of debris currently in space -- much it either the natural remnants of satellites whose fuel cycle has come to an end or the result of military testing -- is a collective disaster waiting to happen.

The Department of Defense is able to track the approximately 22,000 objects in space that are larger than 10 centimeters. But there are hundreds of thousands of pieces, traveling at speeds of 17,500 miles per hour, that are smaller and are not easily tracked -- but that could cause problems in space.

A paint chip came close to partially shattering a window on a space shuttle during a mission in the '90s, and earlier this year a piece of debris that came close to hitting the International Space Station forced the four astronauts then on board to shelter in the craft's escape module until the danger passed.

Concerns over space safety were raised even further in 2007 after China, as part of a military test, destroyed a weather satellite that had become disabled. The anti-satellite test created a huge cloud of orbital debris that led many to question whether the long-term sustainability of space use was at "serious risk from space debris and irresponsible actors," as Clinton said earlier this year.

The United States already plays an active role in working to prevent collisions with space debris.

The U.S. Joint Space Operation Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California provides notifications to other governments or commercial satellite operators when a piece of debris gets too close, so the satellite can be moved out of the path of debris.

And China is many times on of the receiving end of those notifications -- most recently with its latest manned space mission in June.

"As has been the case for the previous Chinese human space launches, the U.S. government, working through the U.S. Department of State, offered China routine collision avoidance support to identify potential hazards to the Shenzhou spacecraft while in orbit," a U.S. official, who declined to be named due to the sensitivity of the subject, told CNN.

"This support is routinely provided for all human spaceflight activities (U.S., Russian and Chinese) to compare their location to any of the more than 22,000 known objects in orbit."

With no central governing architecture for its use, outer space is governed by a patchwork of informal industry standards, and certain bilateral agreements between governments that seek to mitigate the possibility of collisions. The United States is in the early stages of working with allies to create a code of conduct that would obligate countries from intentionally creating space debris.

Critics of the proposed code say such a proposed framework unnecessarily ties the hands of the United States in its development of possible future space-based weapons systems.

"This is an unnecessary constraint that we would inflict on ourselves," Dean Cheng with the Heritage Foundation told CNN. "Are you willing to go into a conflict with systems you haven't tested?"

An article by John Bolton and John Yoo, two senior national security officials in the George W. Bush administration, said working with the Europeans on a space code of conduct was nothing more than a dangerous end run around Congress's role of approving international treaties.

"Since there is little our friends across the pond don't want to regulate, it is no surprise that they are now reaching for space," Bolton and Yoo wrote in The New York Times earlier this year. "Taken literally, the European Union code would interfere with our ability to develop anti-ballistic missile systems in space, test anti-satellite weapons and gather intelligence."

"It is important to clarify several points with respect to the code," Rose Gottemoeller, acting under-secretary for arms control and international security, wrote in a response that also appeared in The Times. "It is still under development, we would not subscribe to any code unless it protects and enhances our national security, and the code would not be legally binding."

Administration officials say the multi-lateral negotiations over the code of conduct is still in the very early stages and any final text is still a few years away.

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